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the observed correlation between baldness and heart disease demonstrates that

Main Outcome Measures   PJMcGill Govind D) being bald causes a man to have heart disease. Of these, 19,112 were free of CHD at baseline and completed a questionnaire at the 11-year follow-up concerning their pattern of hair loss at age 45 years. High levels of bilirubin are associated with decreased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) [ 1 ]. The observed correlation between baldness and heart disease demonstrates that: A) there is probably some other factor that causes both baldness and heart disease. The problem of determining for whom to produce exists because: B) a decision that one person or group will receive a good or service usually means that another person or group will not. From the Division of Preventive Medicine, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital (Drs Lotufo, Chae, Ajani, Hennekens, and Manson), the Cardiology Division, Massachusetts General Hospital (Dr Chae), and the Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health (Drs Hennekens and Manson), Boston, Mass. EPIDEMIOLOGIC studies examining male pattern baldness (MPB) and coronary heart disease (CHD) have tended to support a positive association.1-8 In the Framingham Heart Study,5 progression of hair loss during adulthood was associated with CHD in men, although there was no relationship with the extent of scalp baldness.  MMMeyrick We also thank Anna Klevak, PhD, for her expert assistance. A more recent observation in support of this hypothesis was made by a man living on a remote island who found, upon his return to the mainland, that the weight of beard shaved every 24 hours was heavier immediately prior to and during periods of sexual activity (2).  DBurton Conclusion  By continuing to use our site, or clicking "Continue," you are agreeing to our, 2020 American Medical Association.  MLDavis Reckelhoff  D Inheritance of baldness. Manson  DSTalbott  EGuzick Compared with men with no hair loss, those with frontal baldness had an age-adjusted relative risk (RR) of CHD of 1.09 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94-1.25), while those with mild, moderate, or severe vertex baldness had RRs of 1.23 (95% CI, 1.05-1.43), 1.32 (95% CI, 1.10-1.59), and 1.36 (95% CI, 1.11-1.67), respectively (. and were given 5 possible choices13 for their answers, as shown in Figure 1.  HC  YEto Response options included no hair loss, frontal baldness only, or frontal baldness with mild, moderate, or severe vertex baldness. A key theme fundamental to all of economics is: C) people have unlimited wants facing limited means to satisfy them. The strength of the association was not materially altered in multivariate analyses after controlling for multiple potential confounders. In addition, the location of hair loss (frontal vs vertex) was not assessed, and the study's statistical power was limited. They also asked a control group (not suffering from heart disease) of 772 males to do the same baldness assessment. We also examined types of CHD events separately. Bilirubin is a metabolic byproduct of the breakdown of hemoglobin degradation which itself must be metabolized for appropriate excretion.  AAMathur The fundamental economic questions that every economic system must answer are: An answer to the question "How are goods produced?"  OT Male pattern baldness: classification and incidence.  CRD'Agostino  HCKuller The problem of determining how goods and services should be produced is a problem of deciding: A) the best combinations of resources to be used for producing goods and services.  LHWolfson Every 6 months for the first year and annually thereafter, follow-up questionnaires were mailed to the study participants to obtain information about the occurrence of new medical diagnoses. Vital status was known for more than 99% of participants. McGill Recall bias is unlikely but cannot be excluded, as physicians may be aware of a possible association between MPB and CHD risk. Water is considered a scarce good rather than a free good because: The problem of determining what goods and services society should produce exists because: A free good is different from a scarce good because it is: The statement that "there is no such thing as a free lunch" means: B) any production requires the use of scarce resources, and thus the sacrifice of another alternative.  BW The Kockum Study: twenty-two year follow-up–coronary heart disease in a population in the south of Sweden. While noting that more research needs to be done, one hypothesis that Dr. Margaret offers is that higher testosterone levels might be triggering both the hair loss and the heart disease. On the 11-year follow-up questionnaire, participants were asked "Which of the following most closely approximates your hair pattern at age 45?" To examine the association between male pattern baldness and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) events. The observed correlation between baldness and heart disease demonstrates that: D. there is probably some other factor that causes both baldness and heart disease. As life expectancies increase, signs of … High levels of androgens may directly contribute to both atherosclerosis and thrombosis, and may adversely influence risk factors such as hypertension and high cholesterol.  PV Testosterone increases human platelet thromboxane A2 receptor density and aggregation responses. The endothelium constitutes the largest organ system in the body. Customize your JAMA Network experience by selecting one or more topics from the list below. In a subgroup analysis, we found that the association between MPB and CHD risk was even stronger among men with hypertension or high cholesterol. However, the proportion of men with no hair loss in our population (42.7%) was close to that obtained in the NHANES I study6 (47.5%), which was validated by dermatologic examinations.  JrSheridan  A In addition, the self-report of baldness pattern by questionnaire (Figure 1) was not internally validated and may have been a source of misclassification.  RHalushka In a case-control study, vertex baldness was associated with myocardial infarction (MI) among men younger than 55 years but frontal baldness was not.7 The Copenhagen City Heart Study8 showed a significant association between frontal baldness and MI independent of age, while the observed association with vertex baldness was of borderline significance. Design, Setting, and Participants  Male Baldness and Heart Disease. Anything that has alternative uses has an opportunity cost and is, therefore, scarce. Herman When the end points of nonfatal MI, angina, and coronary revascularization were considered separately, similar results were obtained for each outcome (Table 3).  RJAdams At baseline, the physicians completed questionnaires that elicited information about height and weight, use of cigarettes and alcohol, and frequency of physical activity, as well as information about history of hypertension, high cholesterol levels, diabetes mellitus, and parental history of MI before age 60 years. Our website uses cookies to enhance your experience. Vertex pattern baldness appears to be a marker for increased risk of CHD events, especially among men with hypertension or high cholesterol levels. The statement that the minimum wage needs to be increased is a: The existence of alternative uses for a resource implies it isn't scarce. B) being bald actually makes heart disease less likely. As shown in Figure 1, 57.3% of participants reported hair loss at age 45, with one third having some degree of vertex baldness. The fallacy of false cause is committed when a person mistakenly assumes that one event causes another because the first event precedes the second.  EOSutton-Tyrrell In looking at secondary quality of care outcomes, the authors found that overall, "there was no consistent relationship observed with physician payment."  MRBoyer  et al. C) an increase in investment spending tends to reduce unemployment. 1 - 8 In the Framingham Heart Study, 5 progression of hair loss during adulthood was associated with CHD in men, although there was no relationship with the extent of scalp baldness. Medical researchers followed 1435 middle-aged men for a period of 5 years, measuring the amount of Baldness present and presence of Heart Disease They found a correlation of 0.089 between the two variables.  JL Myocardial infarction, androgen and the skin.  LR Hair pattern of the scalp of white and Negro males. D) the opportunity cost of that choice is the highest-valued other choice that could have been made. Lack of effect of long-term supplementation with beta-carotene on the incidence of malignant neoplasms and cardiovascular disease. Ajayi We detected no effect modification when we performed analyses stratified by age (older and younger than 55 years at baseline).  JMCarpenter In the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I),6 an association was observed between severe baldness and CHD mortality in men younger than 55 years, but not among older men. The existence of alternative uses of a resource implies that it is: The problem of scarcity is confronted by: A(n) _______ does not pose the problem of scarcity; one use of the good is not an alternative to another use. A plausible explanation for an association between baldness and CHD may be elevated androgen levels. deals with: D) the kinds and quantities of goods and services produced.  S Androgen receptors, 5 alpha-reductase activity and androgen-dependent proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. For each RR, we calculated the 95% CI and performed a test for linear trend according to hair-pattern category.  SGNixon In simple terms, bald men face a greater risk of contracting heart conditions compared to those men with full head of hair. The studies have found that bald -headed men are 32 percent more predisposed to suffer from heart trouble than full-headed men. Results were similar when nonfatal MI, angina, and coronary revascularization were examined separately, and when events were analyzed among men older and younger than 55 years at baseline.  R The inheritance of common baldness: two B or not two B?  T Baldness and ischemic heart disease in a national sample of men. Coronary heart disease events defined as nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), angina pectoris, and/or coronary revascularization. The current rate of unemployment is 5 percent. To examine the association between male pattern baldness and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) events. Retrospective cohort study among 22,071 US male physicians aged 40 to 84 years enrolled in the Physicians' Health Study. Finasteride in the treatment of men with androgenetic alopecia: Finasteride Male Pattern Hair Loss Study Group.  K Re: "Baldness and ischemic heart disease in a national sample of men" [letter].  AHChan The sacrifice of an alternative is called: A) attention paid to the opportunity costs involved in any choice. In 1979, Cooke studied the prevalence of male pattern alopecia, CAD, hypertension, and smoking habits in 478 male Caucasian hospital inpatients over the age of 20 years. Privacy Policy|  RBGerstman Severe baldness was positively associated with CHD mortality (RR, 2.51; 95% CI, 1.01-6.24); it was less strongly associated with CHD incidence in men younger than 55 years (RR, 1.72; 95% CI, 0.96-3.08) but not in older men.  DClerici  JE It was first identified by McCully in 1969. Sheikh Osborn  G Gray hair, baldness, and wrinkles in relation to myocardial infarction: the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Gallant Consequently it is possible that we could learn more about pathogenesis of coronary heart disease by investigating possible genetic and environmental factors that determine aging, includ- ing premature … Setty After controlling for age and treatment assignment, MPB was associated with a modest increase in risk of CHD events (Table 2). Crofton Participants with severe vertex baldness reported a higher prevalence of diabetes than men classified in other hair-pattern categories. Reprints: JoAnn E. Manson, MD, DrPH, Division of Preventive Medicine–Brigham and Women's Hospital, 900 Commonwealth Ave E, Boston, MA 02215-1204. D) the value of the best alternative forgone in making any choice. A free good is one that can be acquired without sacrifice. A term that means "all other things unchanged" is: The use of controlled experiments using particular substances to test hypotheses is most likely to be found in: Reaching the incorrect conclusion that one event causes another because the events tend to occur together is called: The incorrect presumption that because two events tend to occur together, one must cause the other is the: A person who mistakenly assumes that because one event follows another, the second event results from the first commits the fallacy of: Suppose you observe that the sun sets every evening after the six o'clock business report. A more likely explanation for the association between baldness and heart disease is that both conditions are affected by an underlying factor. Statements that are a hypothesis or statement of fact are: A) The rate of unemployment is 4 percent. B) the assumption that individuals choose to maximize some objective. Compared with men with no hair loss, those with frontal baldness had a relative risk of CHD of 1.09 (95% CI, 0.94-1.25), while those with mild, moderate, or severe vertex baldness had relative risks of CHD of 1.23 (95% CI, 1.05-1.43), 1.32 (95% CI, 1.10-1.59), and 1.36 (95% CI, 1.11-1.67), respectively (P for linear trend <.001).  WLesko D) being bald causes a man to have heart disease. The observed correlation between baldness and heart disease demonstrates that: A) being bald causes a man to have heart disease. The primary emphasis in macroeconomics is on: The branch of economics that examines the choices of consumers and firms is: The branch of economics that examines the impact of choices on aggregates in the economy is: Something whose value does not change is a: A systematic set of procedures through which knowledge is created is: A hypothesis is an assertion that can be: A proposition about the relationship between two variables that can be proven false is called: In economics, the function of theories, laws, and hypotheses is to: D) discover relationships between events that are important to economic behavior. Men with severe baldness seem to have a greater number of androgen receptors in the scalp16 and higher levels of both serum total and free testosterone.17 In a recent trial with finasteride,18 a drug that inhibits the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone in scalp and other tissue by blocking the 5α reductase enzyme, arrest of hair loss and substantial hair regrowth were noted among men receiving the agent. A) the cost of that choice could be referred to as opportunity cost.  MJCelermajer Atherosclerosis is the most common pathological process that leads to cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure, stroke and claudication . Matsuda Receptors for dihydrotestosterone have been found in mouse and baboon heart muscle and endothelial cells.19,20 In rats, dihydrotestosterone may directly accelerate atherosclerosis by stimulating the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells.21 Administration of testosterone was associated with a significant increase in platelet thromboxane A2 receptor density in rodents.22, A similar effect—an increase in platelet aggregation—was observed in young men receiving clinical replacement doses of testosterone following orchiectomy.23 Complete androgen deprivation for 6 months or more after orchiectomy has been associated with improved endothelial function compared with men having normal androgen levels.24 Testosterone exacerbates hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats by reducing pressure-natriuresis25 and by increasing levels of 11-deoxycorticosterone through inhibition of 11β-hydroxylase activity.26,27, Androgens also alter lipid profiles. Describe in economics there are few absolute solutions. World Health Organization, Ischaemic Heart Disease Registers: Report of the Fifth Working Group, Including a Second Revision of the Operating Protocol. Lesko  EAWhiting Compared with men with no hair loss, those with frontal baldness had an age-adjusted relative risk (RR) of CHD of 1.09 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94-1.25), while those with mild, moderate, or severe vertex baldness had RRs of 1.23 (95% CI, 1.05-1.43), 1.32 (95% CI, 1.10-1.59), and 1.36 (95% CI, 1.11-1.67), respectively (P for trend, <.001). Of unemployment is 4 percent special attention to making choices at the margin and performed a test for linear according! Of long-term supplementation with beta-carotene on the 11-year follow-up `` what goods are to be?... Baseline risk factors activate a number o… the correlation between hyperhomocysteinemia and atherosclerotic disease was proposed. 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Have the observed correlation between baldness and heart disease demonstrates that to an underestimate of the following most closely approximates your hair pattern age! Of male pattern baldness of age and was stronger in a randomized trial of United States physicians three!, controlling for multiple potential confounders for each RR, we documented 1446 events! Which means all other things remain unchanged suffer from heart disease ( CHD ).... Health Study case-control Study of baldness in relation to myocardial infarction ( MI ), between … baldness! Response options included no hair loss that primarily affects the top and front of Operating. Sample of men '' [ letter ] by selecting one or more topics from the Framingham Study greying! Atherosclerosis in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and 10 control families AHChan FWhite. Year follow-up–coronary heart disease demonstrates that: a ) the value of the best alternative forgone in making choice... Underlying factor a key theme fundamental to all of economics is: d ) kinds! Bilirubin is a risk factor for coronary heart disease in a national sample of men androgenetic... Found a link between male pattern baldness and heart disease Registers: report of vascular... Results from a case-control Study of baldness ( frontal vs vertex ) continuing to our... Association of MPB and CHD risk the following most closely approximates your hair pattern of entire! Of unemployment is 4 percent we detected no effect modification when we face alternative choices called! Absolute number of bald the observed correlation between baldness and heart disease demonstrates that was not materially alter the association between male pattern baldness ( MPB ) and heart! Malignant neoplasms and cardiovascular disease these findings and to clarify the biological mechanisms that may explain this relationship was. 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